SCIENCE : Best phenomena of the material universe



SCIENCE : Best phenomena of the material universe

Science (from Latin scientia, meaning knowledge is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe In modern usage. “science” most often refers to a way of pursuing knowledge, not only the knowledge itself It is also often restricted to those branches of study that seek to explain the phenomena of the material universe



Physics (from Ancient Greek physis “nature”) is a natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through spacetime, along with related concepts such as energy and force More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves

.Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines,

perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy. Over the last two millennia, physics was a part of natural philosophy along with chemistry, certain branches of mathematics, and biology, but during the Scientific Revolution in the 16th century, the natural sciences emerged as unique research programs in their own right.

Newton’s Three Laws of Motion

Newton’s First Law: An object that is at rest will remain at rest and an object that is moving in a straight line with constant velocity will continue to do so, if the net force (the sum of all forces acting on the object) is equal to zero Newton generalized Galileo’s study of motion to fit motion in any direction. His first law is often referred to as the law of inertia Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist change as in this case, a change in its motion

Newton’s Second Law: The force exerted on an object is a function of both the object’s mass and the rate of acceleration it experiences as a result of the force. This means that force is both proportional to mass and to acceleration when one of the two remains constant. but mass and acceleration are inversely proportional to one another when force remains constant

The equation for Newton’s Second Law Fis Force , m is mass, and a is acceleration



Newton’s Third Law Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts a force on the first object Sometimes this law is described as saying to every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

.Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation Newton was able to express his law in terms that applied to the motion of planets orbiting the sun His law agreed with Kepler’s third law which provided proof that he had he and Kepler were on the right track and in agreement about the observable known universe. His law defined the force of gravity in terms of the mass of the two objects exerting gravitational force on each other and the distance which separates them. His law says that the Force of gravity between two objects varies directly with the masses of the two objects and varies inversely with the distance separating them squared

The Equation for Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation

Fgam, m/d. (a proportionality) FgGm, m/d’. (an equality)


Where G is a numerical constant changing the proportionality into an equality Unfortunately Newton did not have the means (the equipment) to measure very small gravitational forces in a laboratory experimental setting so he wasn’t able to determine the value for G It wasn’t until around 100 years later that a person by the name of Henry Cavendish was able to experimentally determine the value for G and calculations using Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation could be done


. Chemistry, a branch of physical science, is the study of the composition, properties and behavior of matter As it is a fundamental component of matter, the atom is the basic unit of chemistry

Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their

interactions with other atoms, with particular focus

on the properties of the chemical bonds formed

between species Chemistry is sometimes called “the

central science” because it bridges other natural

sciences like physics, geology and biology with each


Chemistry is a branch of physical science but distinct from physics. The word chemistry comes from the word alchemy, an earlier set of practices that encompassed elements of chemistry, metallurgy, philosophy astrology, astronomy, mysticism and medicine, it is commonly thought of as the quest to turn lend or another common starting material into gold.

Alchemy, which was practiced around 330, is the study of the composition of waters, movement, growth embodying, disembodying, drawing the spirits from bodies and bonding the spirits within bodies (Zonimoa)

The genesis of chemistry can be traced to the widely observed phenomenon of burning that led to metallurgythe art and science of processing ores to get metals (eg metallurgy in ancient India). The greed for gold led to the discovery of the process for its purification, even though the underlying principles were not well understood,at was thought to be a transformation rather than purification

Chemistry is considered to have become a full-fledged science with the wurk of Antoine Lavoisier, who developed a law of conservation of mass that demanded careful measurements and quantitative observations of chemical phenomena. The history of chemistry is intertwined with the history of thermodynamics, especially through the work of Willard Gibbs

Greek atomam dates back to 440 BC aring in works by philosophers such as Democritus and Epicurus In 50 BC, the Roman philosopher Lucretius expanded upon the theory in his book De Rerum Natura (On The Nature of Things: Unlike modern concepts of science, Greek atomism was purely philosophical in nature, with little concern for empirical observations and no concern for chemical experiments

THE PERIODIC TABLE Formulator of the Periodic Table

A commemorative stamp collector’s miniature sheet showing some of Mendeleev’s original notes Horizontal Imes like Cr. Mo and W in the third row down) correspond to today’s groups. Note the date. 17 February 1869

Other people. like Londoner John Newlands, Frenchman Alexandre Beguyer de Chancrous and German Julius Lothar Meyer made important. contributions to the first Periodic Table but the main credit goes to Mendeleev All of them were helped by the publication in 1860 of more accurate atomic weights, as relative atomic masses were then called

There were two main problems about establishing a pattern for the elements. First only 60 elements had been discovered we now know of over 100) and second some of the information about the 60 was wrong

Mendeleev had written the properties of elemental on pieces of card and tradition has it that after organizing the cards while playing patience be suddenly realized that by arranging the element cards in order of increasing atomic weight that certain types of element regularly occurred

.For example a reactive non-metal was

followed by a very reactive light metal, then a less

reactive light metal

Merits He could classify all the 63 elements known at that time on the basis of similarities in properties

He left gaps for the elements yet to be discovered He predicted the properties of those yet to be discovered elements and thus, helped in the discovery

of other elements later on. He named these elements by prefixing a sanskr numeral ‘Eka’ (one). Divi’ (two), Tri’ (three), etc. to the names of the preceding similar element in the same group. For example eka boron, eka-Aluminium, eka-silicon, divi- manganese, eka- tantalum, etc.

ed ho at of


All these elements were discovered later and did have the properties similar to those predicted by Mendeleev


Atomic mass 68 69.7

• Formula of oxide E203 Ga 0,

• Formula of chloride ECL3 Gal,

Demerits- Although most of the elements were placed in the order of increasing atomic weights but this increasing order could not be maintained in all cases. For example Cobalt atomic mass is 58.93u preceded Nickel 58.71u preceded Tellurium 127.6 preceded Iodine 126.90, thus he couldn’t maintain similarities

in properties. •Mendeleev periodic table did not provide space for noble gases which were discovered later

Moreover there was no space left for isotopes in Mendeleev’s periodic table.


The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, organized on the basis of their atomic numbers, electron configurations, and recurring chemical properties. Elements are presented in order of increasing atomic number (number of protons). The standard form of the table comprises an 18-column-by-7-row main grid of elements, with a double row of elements below. The table can also be deconstructed into four rectangular blocks, the s-block to the left, the p-block to the right the d-block in the middle, and the f-block below that

SCIENCE :the phenomena of the material universe

for more


5 thoughts on “SCIENCE : Best phenomena of the material universe

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

%d bloggers like this: